When should this type of transportation be considered?
In some regions of short-sea navigation, general cargo transportation by vessels has lost its relevance due to its laboriousness, and container transportation has come to replace it, which in this case often turns out to be even cheaper than ship lots. Nevertheless, when the volume of the cargo exceeds 2,000 tons, the carriage in bulk again acquires its relevance, but for its implementation it is necessary to have a special qualification. Not to mention lots of over 50,000 tons (Supramax vessels type), 70,000 tons (Panamax type) and 100,000 tons (Capesize type).
Classification of bulk cargoesBulk cargo, in terms of normalizing the conditions for their transportation, are divided into two groups: non-grain and grain.
Non-grain includes goods transported in bulk: ore, ore concentrates, coal, building materials, salt, raw sugar, grain, etc. All these loads consist of homogeneous or inhomogeneous particles of limited size.
All grain cargoes are divided into three groups: cereals, legumes and oilseeds. Physical properties: flowability, shrinkage, density, borehole, thermal conductivity and sorption properties. Biological properties: grain respiration, ripening, germination, self-warming, etc. The carrier must take into account all the specified properties of the cargo and ensure, firstly, rational loading and safe navigation of the ship; secondly, the safety of the goods carried.
Legal basis of transportation by shipsAll ships carrying grain in bulk must have on board the relevant documentation developed in accordance with the requirements of Chapter 6 of the SOLAS-74 Convention (the "International Grain Code") and the Rules of the Register.
Transportation of bulk cargoes in international shipping is regulated by the Code of Safe Practice for the Transport of Solid Bulk Cargoes, which have an advisory character, and the Intra-Union Rules for the Safe Transport of Non-grain Bulk Cargoes (RTM 310038-78).
There are also a number of Standards, International Conventions and Regulations that are directly related to the goods carried on board and regulate them. Among them - SOLAS, MARPOL, IMDG Code, standard Gencon, Nype, Synacomex and many others, without understanding which the organization and support of any transportation is impossible for both the shipowner and the charterer.